Newbie startup question.

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First time ever with either *nix or Oracle, I just managed to install 10g on CentOS. It provided a link to get into Oracle which I used successfully, but then I rebooted the box, now the link no longer works. I know I need to start up the DB/ instance/ etc., but all the docs I see are telling me how to do these things using Enterprise Manager or SQL Plus, which I'm starting to think are not installed by default. I'm cool with just using the link if it has all the tools (?), but I need to know how to startup without them? Or are they necessary and not installed by default?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
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I believe that Bash means the Terminal, and I should use
those commands?Bash is the shell or command processor. You can have many different shells in Linux/Unix. Bash is the most common with Linux and the default shell used by the Terminal application.
2. Is "oracle_home" the entire path (in my case
/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/bin/)?In your case ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1 . Do not need the /bin/.
3. Is oracle_sid my login (please bear with my
Windows background). The ORACLE_SID is the database SID. You can find the sid by looking at /etc/oratab, ps -ef | grep pmon (if the database is running). There are other ways to determine the sid as well.
You will generally add the export of the ORACLE_HOME to your bash_profile so they will be set at login.
Also you will want to add $ORACL_HOME/bin to your path.
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH